French Social Security
This page outlines
- Taxable income
- Social Security rates
- International aspects
- Social Security Optimisation
Each household's circumstances are different, and the legislation is complex. We strongly recommend obtaining advice from qualified professionals in France - and we would be glad to assist.
French Social Security contributions enable residents to obtain generous benefits such as access to one of the world's best medical systems and some of the world's highest unemployment allowances. Understandably, this requires some of the world's highest contributions...
The contributions also count towards state pensions though no-one knows exactly how much benefit will be obtained when they retire. The French government is strongly encouraging people to organise their own private pensions and I would advise working individuals to take advantage of the government incentives and consider any future state pension simply as "pocket money".
BREXIT clearly puts into question future access to the French health system - for residents whose health cover is currently only provided by the UK based on past National Insurance contributions.
Any residents who are not covered by either the French or another EU scheme can normally however pay voluntary contributions (to a system known as protection universelle maladie) to get access to medical cover.
Social Security contributions are payable on all earned income whether from salaried employment, directorships, partnerships, self-employment, etc.
If you set up a company it is no longer possible to reduce your social charges by paying yourself a small salary and taking the remainder as dividends.
Since 2013, full social security contributions are due on most dividends as well as on salary (for individuals who pay themselves a mixture of both).
SOCIAL SECURITY RATES
The calculations for contributions are extremely complex being made up of a large number of elements. For the self-employed, the contributions are calculated based on income from the year before last.
Salaried employees are typically subject to employer contributions of around 45% and employee contributions of around 25%
Self-employed are typically subject to contributions of around 30%. This excludes any rights to unemployment benefits. Please note the rate is not fixed: it can reach around 40% for low incomes and around 15% for high incomes. Please contact us if you require an approximate calculation.
If you expect income to be below 81500k€ (32600€) you should strongly consider using the AutoEntrepreneur regime. Full details can be found at the official website www.lautoentrepreneur.fr.
There is a specific treaty covering social security contributions and benefits for all EU citizens. The objective is that citizens will pay contributions in only one country at a time - but can move around the EU obtaining benefits wherever they are.
In addition, the treaty clarifies the rules for secondments (being sent by your employer for one or two years to a different country) and frontier workers (working in one country and living in another).
For non-European citizens living in France, similar treaties exist to prevent dual payment of contributions while ensuring a minimum level of permanent social cover.
Citizens who depend entirely upon the social system of another European country may be elgible for reimbursement of certain parts of the social contributions - see restitution des prélèvements sociaux in our section on Social Taxes.
OPTIMISATION : HOW TO REDUCE SOCIAL SECURITY
1. Structures in France.
Given the difference in contribution rates between salaried and self-employed workers, you should carefully weigh up the alternatives if you intend to create a small business yourself in France.
There are many legal considerations to take into account when setting up a business such as limited liability. However, due to the high cost of social security contributions, they can be a major influence in the way any small business is set up.
2. International workers
If you spend a significant amount of time in another country, it may be worth reviewing the possibility of setting up a specific work contract with that country - which would normally be subject to local and not French social security contributions.
Given the difference in rates between France and other EU companies, you should consider the possibility of taking advantage of the international treaties.
EU expats should consider a secondment for one or two years. If your work can be carried out outside France, you may be able to qualify as a frontier worker.
Both solutions can provide greatly reduced levels of contributions - yet ensure continued benefits within France.
Copyright © 2017 Cabinet Gregory Latest modification: 26 february 2017 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org